A. What is Classical Literature?

Classical literature begins in middle ages. It’s related to period from 449 until before restoration. Classical literature as subject study is the study of literary work which happened in classical period between middle age until puritan age.

B.     The Middle Ages

The middle ages lie between 449-1485. The middle age includes the Anglo-Saxon period. In this period, the Germanic invasions were happened. The invading Germanic tribes brought a common language, called old English or Anglo-Saxon. During the Anglo-Saxon period, England was not the unified country.

Anglo Saxon civilization:

–          Belief of many gods

–          The society is unstable

–          The society loyal to the king, whatever tribe he came from

–          In meeting, they can openly express what they thought and felt (democratic)

Characteristic of literary work:

–          Only an oral art

–          A song, or sing a song

–          Heroic / epic

Most popular literary work in this period is Beowulf. Beowulf is England’s heroic epic, the author is unknown. It’s about a hero who is leader of his people. The diction is stately and many of its scenes are traditional. Beowulf is about 30.000 lines. It’s an oral poem and finally written by venerable Bede.

The other literary work in this period was the seafarer. It tells about the condition in the sea that describes loneliness. The theme of the seafarer is alienation. The poem gives the idea that the eternal power is the power of God.

C.    The Medieval Period

The medieval period begins in 1066 with the battle of Hastings. He king of England was defeated by William the conqueror, duke of Normandy. In this period, there is the feudal system. Feudalism was a complicated system of landholding. Nobody owned land independently.

One significant law during this period was law of primogeniture. It’s the law that the right of inheritance is only for the firstborn son.

The form of literary work in medieval period was the romance. The specific theme of literary work was reality. The great poet in this period is Geoffrey Chaucer. He is called the father of English poetry because his effect to the society is great, he has much skill. Chaucer died in 1400 and was buried in Westminster abbey.

The most famous literary work was Canterbury tales. It’s about the journey to Canterbury. The Canterbury tales is a reflection of society at the time.

D.    The Renaissance

Renaissance means “rebirth”, the rebirth of intellectual and artistic energies that characterized ancient Greek and Roman civilization and with this the awakening of a whole range of new interests in human beings.

The renaissance began in Italy. The renaissance was not only a period of new artistic and intellectual enterprise but also a time of territorial exploration and discovery.

The renaissance happened twice:

  • Happened in Italy → humanism, during the fourteenth century
  • Happened in England → romantic, the middle of seventeenth century

The real / great of renaissance in England happened in the Elizabethan period.

  1. The Elizabethan Ages

The Elizabethan ages are the period of England that led by Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Elizabeth had a sharp intellect and an excellent renaissance education. She was also a clever diplomat. Elizabeth encourages literary and artistic developments that would finally allow the renaissance in England to grow and flourish.

The greatest and most distinctive achievement of Elizabethan literature is the drama. There was a strong tradition of popular religious drama in medieval England: mystery, miracle plays, and morality plays.

The greatest dramatist poet in Elizabethan period is William Shakespeare. Shakespeare became a member of the most successful company of actors in London, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men. In 1599 Shakespeare’s company built the famous Globe Theaters, where most of his best known plays were performed. Queen Elizabeth often summoned the lord chamberlain’s men to put on private performances for her at court.

Romeo and Juliet is most famous literary work by William Shakespeare in Elizabethan ages until present. The other literary work is Macbeth. Macbeth offers us a timeless image of the human will struggling against forces, including those of the mind itself, which are beyond its ultimate control.

The Elizabethan’s theatres are unique. There was an open enclosure where the groundlings could stand for a penny, surrounded by roofed galleries on all sides. The stage, a raised platform projecting into the enclosure, would have been at least partially covered with a roof supported by two pillars at the front. Two doors on either side of the stage led back to a dressing room. Below the stage was an area used by musicians and sound –effects men, and occasionally by actors laying the parts of ghosts or spirits who would ascend or descend by means of trap doors. Directly behind the main stage was a recessed inner stage, called the inner below. Above the main stage was area known as the upper stage or the inner above. Sometimes spectators occupied this area, but more often than not it was used as part of the stage-as Juliet’s bedroom, perhaps, or as the wall of Macbeth’s castle. A balcony probably extended out for a few feet from this upper stage.

2. The Jacobean Ages

Jacobean comes from jacobacus, a Latin form of the name James. James I ruled his kingdom of Scotland together with that of England until 1625, and the period of his reign is known as the Jacobean era. The reign of James I initiated a time of deep religious and political unrest in England.

The literature in Jacobean ages is the Elizabethan literary heritage. In Jacobean drama, a darker and more disturbing image of life appears: themes of violence, madness, and corruption come to the fore.

The most famous literary work in this period is poetry, and the most famous writer is john Donne. John Donne and the seventeenth century poets who wrote in a style inspired by metaphysical poets. This term was coined by Samuel Johnson to refer to these writers’ use of difficult, highly intellectualized images of ten drawn from scholastic philosophy or metaphysics. The metaphysical poem is more argumentative in tone, its language is more colloquial, and its meter is usually varied, irregular, eve rough and harsh.

The themes of literary wok in this period were love and religious. The metaphysical poets wrote both love poems and religious or meditative lyrics.





By: Ayu Trinawangsari

Postcolonial literature is a body of literary writing that reacts to the discourse of colonization. It is also a literary critique to texts that carry racist or colonial undertones. Postcolonial fiction writers might interact with the traditional colonial discourse by attempting to modify or subvert it.  Wide Sargasso Sea is postcolonial novel which was written as prequel to Jane Eyre by charlotte Bronte. Postcolonial literature works through the process of writing back, rewriting, and reading. This describes the interpretation of well-known literature from the perspective of the formerly colonized. In wide Sargasso Sea, the protagonist is shown to be re-named and exploited in several ways.

Wide Sargasso Sea is the novel by Dominican born author, Jean Rhys. It is important postcolonial novel which is set against the background of a significant historic event that is globally looked upon as a step in the direction of world free of racial discrimination. The event is the emancipation act in 1833.

In 1833, the British government passed the Emancipation Act which is said that the slave owners of the colonies would have to free their slaves before 1839. These slave owners would receive compensation by the state for their trouble. But the compensation was not as high as the market value of slaves at the time. The first page of wide Sargasso Sea state that “some will wait for a long time” (p.3). This quotation means that the former slave-owners and the newly freed slaves await compensation from the British government. This waiting drove a lot of planters into despair and poverty. In this case, include the Cosway’s family.

Wide Sargasso Sea tells the story about Antoinette Cosway and her family. As with many postcolonial works, Wide Sargasso Sea deals with the theme of racial inequality. There are three races exposed in this novel: white, black, and Creole. Antoinette’s family is neither belongs to white community nor black. “They say when trouble comes close ranks, and so the white people did. But we were not in their ranks” (p.3). This is the opening of the novel, which sets the tone of impending racial unrest and Antoinette’s feelings of alienation.

The novel was divided into three parts. The story begins in 1839, six years after slavery was abolished in the British Empire, of which Jamaica was part. Part one of the novel is set in the Jamaica. Antoinette is the narrator of part one. She describes her family’s isolation and poverty in the wake of emancipation. Antoinette lives with her widowed mother, Annette, and her sickly younger brother, Pierre, in Coulibri estate. Coulibri is a beautiful place, but since the death of her father and the emancipation act of 1833, it has fallen into decay. Antoinette’s father, Mr cosway, was a planter and a slave owner (p.14).


The emancipation of act explain the way to another sort of discrimination, that of Creoles. Creoles are people of European descent born in the West Indies or Spanish America. The French dialect spoken by this people. Legally and politically, they have been racially connected to black communities while culturally they have been distinct people, and that is resented as overt racism.

Antoinette is a Creole girl (p.47), white nigger (p.21). When her family has to give up their slave, they go bankrupt. They become poorer than the slaves that used to work for them. These ex-slaves start to mock their former employees, as we can read that they was called the white cockroach (p.7). They hated more by black people. “Black nigger better than white nigger” (p.8). Antoinette’s only friend is Tia, a black girl, but the friendship soon ends. Tia steals her dress and takes her pennies (p.9). When the mob sets fire to her house, Antoinette runs toward Tia, but throws a jagged rock at Antoinette, cutting her forehead and drawing blood (p.23).

Antoinette life changes when her mother remarries with an English man, Mr. Mason. Mr. Mason is a new comer who has made great profit on buying up the estates of bankrupt planters. Antoinette’s family are wealthy once again, they have money and eat English food (p.16). Mr. Mason engaged new servants and has the house repaired (p.13). But soon it becomes clear that this happy intermezzo can not last. Mr. Mason does not understand the situation in Jamaica and does not care for its inhabitants (p.14). He treats the blacks and the coloured peoples as lazy children, which infuriates them. These circumstance lead to an attack on the Coulibri estate. An angry mob set fire to the house. When the family can finally escape, the mob laughs and throws stones at them.

“I wish I could tell him that put of here is not at all like English people think it is.” (p.15).

This quotation spoken by Antoinette, this shows that the gap between cultures left Mr. Mason ignorant and naïve. He did not understand why the blacks would hate them more if they had money. He underestimated the level of rage brewing in the black community around him. This misunderstanding set the stage for the tragic fire at Coulibri. All of this fact represents how racial or cultural differences influences Antoinette’s family life.

Part two of the novel is set on the island of Dominica, at an estate called Granbois, near the village of massacre, where Antoinette and her husband go for their honeymoon. The narrator of part two is Antoinette’s husband, an Englishman who remains nameless. He knows little about his wife. His marriage is arranged by his father, and he also has dealt with Richard mason (p.43). Antoinette’s husband is portrayed as a proud and bigoted younger brother betrayed by his family into a loveless marriage.

When the couple arrived at Granbois, Antoinette’s inherited estate, the man feels uncomfortable around the servants and his strange young wife. Antoinette’s husband behavior is less easily justifiable. He blackmails Christophine, the black nanny, and he threatens to have her arrested if she does not leave his premise. After receiving the letter from Danil Cosway -one of old cosway’s illegitimate children- which is said that Antoinette comes from a family of derelicts and has madness in her blood, Antoinette’s husband begin to detect signs of her insanity. He does not love Antoinette but wants to control her. He then sleeps with his coloured servant to anger his Creole wife. He very obvious looks down on all the black, coloured and Creole people. He even locks his wife up in the third part of the story. These situation shows racial discrimination by the superior race as Englishman (former colonizer).

Antoinette’s husband is trying to regain control of his surroundings along with controlling Antoinette. His hatred comes from his inability to understand and find comfort in nature as Antoinette and the other people do. He is afraid and refuses to be taken in by the beauty and abundance around him. This situation shows the conflict of value between two cultures, West Indian (Jamaica) and colonial. West Indian values were based on living in harmony with nature. The colonials sought to conquer nature and the people associated with it for their own purposes. This situation can bee seen in the quotation below:

“I hated the mountains and the hills, the rivers and the rain, I hated the sunsets of whatever colour, I hated its beauty and it magic and the secret I would never know. I hated its indifference and the cruelty which was part of its loveliness. She had left me thirsty and all my life would be thirst and longing for what I had lost before I found it” (p.112).

These quotations are Antoinette’s husband’s words toward the end of part two.

Part three of the novel is set in England, where Antoinette is locked away in a garret room in her husband’s house, under the watch of a servant, Grace Poole.

The newly arriving English colonists, represented in the novel by Mr. Mason and Antoinette’s husband, are prejudiced against black. Mr. Mason calls them children and believes blacks make bad workers. Antoinette’s husband describes blacks through racist characterizations.

The story of the Cosway’s family in wide Sargasso Sea is an example of the racial discrimination against the creoles due to the emancipation act. By exploring the subject of racism, it seems to show us that it comes in many forms, and hat no straightforward solution for this problem has yet been found.



A. Latar Belakang Otonomi Pendidikan

Krisis yang dihadapi oleh bangsa Indonesia disebabkan oleh lemahnya sistem perekonomian, yang pada akhirnya berdampak pada kemampuan pemerintah dalam penyiapan dana yang cukup untuk keperluan pendidikan. Kondisi tersebut mengakibatkan menurunnya mutu pendidikan dan terganggunya proses pemerataan pendidikan.

Pendidikan memberikan kontribusi yang sangat besar terhadap kemajuan bangsa dan merupakan sarana yang efektif untuk membangun watak bangsa. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut perlu dilakukan berbagai perubahan, salah satunya yang menonjol yaitu lahirnya Undang-Undang No. 22 tahun 1999 tentang otonomi daerah. Undang-undang tersebut pada akhirnya akan berpengaruh terhadap sistem pengelolaan pendidikan yang dilakukan secara otonom.

Otonomi pengelolaan pendidikan ditujukan agar dapat diwujudkan pemenuhan kebutuhan masyarakat dalam bidang pendidikan yang lebih cepat dan tepat, efektif dan efisien, bersih dari korupsi, kolusi dan nepotisme. Seiring dengan itu otonomi pendidikan berpengaruh terhadap pengambilan kebijakan yang selama ini ditentukan oleh pusat dilimpahkan menjadi wewenang pemerintah daerah.

Dalam konteks otonomi pendidikan, secara alamiah pendidikan adalah otonom. Otonomi pada hakikatnya bertujuan untuk memandirikan seseorang atau suatu lembaga atau suatu daerah, sehingga otonomi pendidikan mempunyai tujuan untuk memberi suatu otonomi dalam mewujudkan fungsi manajemen pendidikan kelembagaan.

Dalam pengertian otonomi pendidikan terkandung makna demokrasi dan keadilan sosial, artinya pendidikan dilaksanakan secara demokrasi sehingga tujuan yang diharapkan dapat diwujudkan dan pendidikan diperuntukkan bagi kepentingan masyarakat, sesuai dengan cita-cita bangsa dalam mencerdaskan bangsa.

Otonomi  pendidikan yang benar harus bersifat accountable, artinya kebijakan pendidikan yang diambil  harus selalu dipertanggungjawabkan kepada publik, karena sekolah merupakan institusi publik atau lembaga yang melayani kebutuhan masyarakat. Otonomi tanpa disertai dengan akuntabilitas publik bisa menjurus menjadi tindakan yang sewenang-wenang.

B. Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah

Pada kerangka otonomi pendidikan, sekolah merupakan pilar utama untuk mewujudkan tujuan pendidikan. Upaya mewujudkan sekolah yang mandiri dan kreatif tidak akan pernah terwujud tanpa adanya pemberian kepercayaan yang penuh bagi sekolah itu agar dapat mengaktualisasikan potensinya. Untuk itu, sekolah beserta seluruh perangkatnya harus segera bangkit untuk menemukan pola pendidikan menuju kemandirian, dan senantiasa kreatif dalam melakukan setiap aktivitas. Dalam hal ini muncul istilah manajemen berbasis sekolah.

Manajemen berbasis sekolah (MBS) atau school based management adalah sistem manajemen yang bertumpu pada situasi dan kondisi serta kebutuhan sekolah setempat. Dalam MBS sekolah diharapkan mengenal kekuatan dan kelemahannya, potensi-potensinya, peluang dan ancaman yang dihadapinya, sebagai dasar dalam menentukan kebijakan-kebijakan pendidikan yang akan diambilnya. Manajemen berbasis sekolah dikembangkan dengan kesadaran bahwa setiap sekolah memiliki kondisi dan situasi serta kebutuhan yang berbeda-beda.

Pada dasarnya manajemen berbasiskan sekolah ditujukan agar sekolah lebih leluasa mengelola sumber daya yang ada sesuai dengan prioritas kebutuhan sekolah.

Ada tiga tujuan utama dari manajemen berbasiskan sekolah, yaitu:

  1. Peningkatan efisiensi, berkaitan dengan keleluasaan mengolah sumber daya yang ada dan partisipasi masyarakat dalam pendidikan, serta penyederhanaan birokrasi.
  2. Peningkatan mutu, berkaitan dengan tinggi rendahnya partisipasi orang tua dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan, pengelolaan sekolah yang fleksibel, keprofesionalan guru, pelaksanaan imbalan dan hukuman, dan penciptaan suasana kerja dan lingkungan yang kondusif.
  3. Peningkatan pemerataan pendidikan, berkaitan dengan kesempatan yang diberikan kepada anggota masyarakat/warga  negara untuk mengikuti pendidikan secara adil dan merata.

Melalui pelaksanaan menajemen berbasis sekolah diharapkan akan memberi peluang kepada kepala sekolah, guru dan peserta didik untuk melakukan inovasi pendidikan dalam segala bidang yang meliputi inovasi dalam kurikulum, proses belajar mengajar, pengelolaan pendidikan dan pengajaran. Kemudian Melalui manajemen berbasis sekolah akan dapat diciptakan kerja sama yang erat dan baik antara kepala sekolah, guru dan personil lainnya serta dengan orang tua murid dan masyarakat untuk mengupayakan pemerataan, efektivitas, dan efisiensi pelaksanaan pendidikan dan pengajaran, serta peningkatan kualitas dan produktivitas pendidikan.

Manajemen berbasis sekolah bertujuan memberikan otonomi kepada sekolah. Otonomi sekolah adalah kewenangan sekolah untuk mengatur dan mengurus kepentingan sekolah sesuai dengan peraturan undang-undang yang berlaku. Dalam konsep MBS hendaklah diusahakan sejauh mana sekolah dapat mengoptimalkan kinerja sekolah, proses belajar mengajar, pengelolaan sumber daya manusia dan sumber daya lainnya secara administratif.

Agar program MBS dapat memberikan keuntungan bagi sekolah secara maksimal, diperlukan adanya sumber daya manusia yang professional untuk mengoperasikan sekolah, dana yang cukup untuk membiayai lembaga yang meliputi gaji personal, sarana dan prasarana yang memadai untuk mendukung proses belajar mengajar, dan biaya lainnya yang digunakan untuk kepentingan lembaga.

Manajemen berbasis sekolah mempunyai beberapa keuntungan antara lain sebagai berikut:

  1. Sekolah dapat meneyesuaikan kegiatan dengan kemampuan yang dimiliki sekolah.
  2. Dapat dilakukan peningkatan kreativitas pengelola beserta seluruh jajaran pendukungnya.
  3. Dalam membuat program sekolah akan lebih tahu akan kebutuhan.

Disamping keuntungan tersebut diatas, manajemen berbasis sekolah juga memiliki kekurangan sebagai berikut:

  1. Masih ditemui lemahnya kemampuan kepala sekolah untuk memahami secara tepat dalam mengaplikasikan program yang distandarkan.
  2. Sarana yang belum mendukung, karena masih adanya perbedaan antara pusat dan daerah disebabkan kemampuan yang berbeda.

C. Pendidikan Berbasis Masyarakat

Masyarakat adalah sekumpulan orang yang hidup dalam hubungan secara akrab satu sama lainnya yang mendiami suatu daerah. Dengan demikian pendidikan berbasiskan masyarakat adalah pendidikan yang dikelola secara langsung oleh masyarakat, dan didasarkan atas inisiatif masyarakat, termasuk pemanfaatan segala fasilitas yang ada dalam rangka mencapai tujuan pendidikan.

Pendidikan berbasiskan masyarakat mengindikasikan kepemilikan masyarakat terhadap pendidikan, dimana masyarakat ikut serta secara aktif dalam pengambilan keputusan dan kebijakan mengenai pendidikan. Masyarakat terlibat secara langsung dalam menentukan tujuan pendidikan, kurikulum, materi, standar kemampuan lulusan yang diharapkan, guru dan kualifikasinya, persyaratan siswa, dan dana yang diperlukan dalam pelaksanaan pendidikan.

Terdapat beberapa faktor yang melatarbelakangi lahirnya konsep pendidikan berbasis masyarakat yaitu sebagai berikut:

  1. Keterbatasan sekolah reguler, terutama di daerah-daerah terpencil dengan lokasi penduduk yang tidak merata dengan jumlah peserta didik yang sedikit.
  2. Keragaman budaya, di mana terjadinya penguatan nilai-nilai budaya dan nilai-nilai lokal yang sangat diperlukan.
  3. Keterbatasan anggaran biaya pemerintah

Tujuan pendidikan berbasiskan masyarakat yaitu untuk membantu pemerintah dalam meningkatkan sumber daya daerah dan untuk melahirkan suatu sikap positif pada masyarakat bahwa pendidikan itu bukanlah tugas dan tanggung jawab pemerintah semata, melainkan menjadi milik seluruh komponen masyarakat yang berhubungan langsung dengan pendidikan tersebut.

Terdapat beberapa kendala dalam pelaksanaan program pendidikan berbasiskan masyarakat antara lain:

  1. Sistem perencanaan, penganggaran dan pertanggungjawaban keuangan masih dipengaruhi sistem lama.
  2. Kurangnya kepercayaan pemerintah terhadap kemampuan masyarakat untuk mengambil peran dalam pelaksanaan program-program pembangunan yang dibutuhkan masyarakat.
  3. Sikap birokrasi yang cenderung berperilaku sebagai penentu
  4. Sistem perencanaan yang masih bertumpu dari atas, sedangkan karakteristik kebutuhan beraneka ragam.
  5. Pola pikir masyarakat yang masih bertumpu pada kebutuhan yang bersifat fisik
  6. Budaya statis dan merasa puas dengan apa yang ada.
  7. Jumlah organisasi kemasayarakatan yang bergerak di bidang pendidikan masih kurang.


Konsep otonomi pendidikan muncul sebagai pengaruh dari peraturan perundang-undangan tentang otonomi daerah, dimana daerah diberi wewenang oleh pemerintah pusat dalam penentuan suatu kebijakan tertentu. Otonomi pendidikan berarti memberikan suatu otonomi dalam mewujudkan fungsi manajemen pendidikan kelembagaan. Otonomi disini maksudnya yaitu memberikan suatu kewenangan terhadap suatu lembaga pendidikan dengan tujuan untuk memandirikan lembaga pendidikan tersebut.

Dalam otonomi pendidikan terdapat istilah manajemen berbasis sekolah dan pendidikan berbasis masyarakat. Manajemen berbasis sekolah adalah sistem manajemen yang bertumpu pada situasi dan kondisi serta kebutuhan sekolah setempat. Sedangkan pendidikan berbasis masyarakat adalah pendidikan yang dikelola secara langsung oleh masyarakat, dan didasarkan atas inisiatif masyarakat, termasuk pemanfaatan segala fasilitas yang ada dalam rangka mencapai tujuan pendidikan.



Deletion of rules must be defined in terms of the phonological environment and the type, position and number of morphemes involved in the change.

  1. Consonant deletion

No double consonant. The general principle which governs the simplification of double consonants to single ones, phonetically, is that English does not allow “long” or “double” consonants within a word. Word internal double consonant letters are not pronounced “long”: irrational and eradicate have the same [r], symmetry and cemetery have the same [m].

Affixes which act like words. Most cases of genuine geminate consonants occur at the juncture of two root morphemes: car race, room mate, hip pain. Some affixes, however, namely the affixes –full, -less, -ness, -counter, dis-, inter-, mis-, -un- etc. can show a strong degree of morpheme identity which preserves the phonetic germination in shelfful, soulless, sternness, counterrevolution, dissatisfy, interracial, misstate, unnamed. With respect to germination, these affixes are often treated as if they were independent roots.

a. S-Degemination

Naturalness. The simplification of consonant clusters across morpheme boundaries is a frequent and natural phenomenon. The process of S-Degemination drops one of two [s] sounds at the juncture between the prefix ex- “out of, from, off’ and a morpheme beginning with [s-]:

Orthographically:  <ex- + s>               → <ex->

Phonetically:         [eks + s-]               → [eks-]

Eks + [s]




ex        + spir “breathe”           → expire

            (cf. in + spir → inspire)

ex        + sequ “follow”           → exequies “ funeral rites”

(cf. con + sequ, as in consequence, consecutive)

ex        + sta “stand” + nt        → extant

            (cf. ob + sta, as in obstacle)

ex        + cep “ take, contain” + t        → except

            (cf. in + cep, as in inception)

The last example does not have an orthographic <-s> in the second morpheme, cep, yet the principle of dropping the redundant consonant remains the same.

  • Spelling exception

Words in which S-Degemination occurs in the pronunciation, but does not affect the original spelling of the second morphemes, can be regarded as “ spelling” exception: exsanguine (1661), exscind (1662), excribe (1607), exsert (1665) (also excert), exsiccate (1545), exstipulate (1793), excudation (1646.)

  • Exception to S-Degemination

S-Degemination does not apply when the morpheme ex- mean “a person out a formerly held position or office”. Ex does not participate in S-Degemination when it is a preposition is borrowed phrases, or phrases coined on the Latin model, such as ex officio “by virtue of the office,” ex warehouse “sold directly.” Its status as an independent word is in accord with the geminate consonants in ex silentio “from silence, from absence of evidence, “as well as in the phrases of mixed etymological origin ex ship, ex store.

  • Other affixes in -s

The principle of S-Degemination extends to two other affixes which end in [-s]: dis- and trans-. As with the prefix ex-, when they are combined with s-initial morphemes, the resulting “long” [s] is simplified. More frequently, our conservative spelling still preserves the clue to the composition of such prefixed words, as in:

dis + cern “ separate, decide”             →discern
dis + ser “join + t-at-ion                      →dissertation

The prefix trans– also triggers S-Degermination:

trans + scend (< scand.”climb”)          →transcend

trans + scribe “write”                          →transcribe

b. X- drop

More simplification. Another process which can affect the phonetic    [-ks] sequence of the prefix ex- is X-drop, the complete disappearance of both consonants from the prefix ex- when it means ”out, out of.” Both the dropping of the [s-] in dis- and X-drop are a consequence of what is called a phonotactic constraint. A phonotactic constrain prohibits the arrangement of certain sounds in sequence: a cluster of a voiceless stop followed by a voiceless fricative followed by a voiced consonant is not a possible word-internal sound sequence in English.

Orthographically: ex- + voiced consonant            → <e->

Phonetically: [εks] + voiced consonant                → [ε-] ([І-] or [i] if the prefix is unstressed)

Here is how X-drop works:

[eks-] + [+CONS, +VOI]




ex + bull “boil” + ient → eØbullient              ex + lev “light”+ ate    → eØlevate

ex + duc “lead” + e     → eØduce                   ex + merge “ dip “       → eØmerge

Like S-Degemination, X-drop is blocked when the morpheme ex preserves its status as an independent word, a preposition, as in the Latinate phrases ex gratia, ex nihilo.

c. N-drop

Limitations. The rule of N-drop applies only to the –n of the negative morpheme an- “not, without, less” and to the English indefinite article an (originally meaning “one” in Old English).

[n-] + [+CONS]




An + chromat “color” + ic                  → aØchromatic

An + mor “manner, custom” + al        → aØmoral

Phrasal scope of N-drop. N-drop does not occur only at morpheme edges is derivational processes, that is, within the confines of a single word. The dropping of -n in the indefinite article applies within a whole noun phrase.

  • Pronunciation and boundaries

When the -n of the negative morpheme is deleted, the remaining vowel can be fully unstressed, pronounced like the indefinite article a, [ə] (schwa): aphasia, amorphous etc. When the prefix is stressed, or when we want to emphasize the article a, the vowel remains the unreduced full vowel, [e] (the vowel of late, they): asymmetry, atheist, apolitical, or “Give me a [е] coin, not the contents of your pocket.”


            The prefix an- remains unchanged before a vowel or h-:

an “not” + esth “perceive” et + ic       → anesthetic

an           + alg “pain” + es + ic            → analgesic

an           + hem “blood” + ic              → anemic ( with drop of initial h-)

  • N-drop in other prefixes

N-drop across morpheme boundaries affect also two other prefixes: con-and syn-. The prefix con– loses its [n] if the following morpheme is vowel initial, or if it begins with [h-]:

[n-] + {V……h….}



N-Drop in con-

Con + ag “drive, do” + ulate              → coǾagulate

Con + erc < arc “keep in” + e             → coǾerce

Con + it “go” + ion                             → coǾition

2. Vowel deletion

  1. V-drop in hiatus

Hiatus. The word “hiatus” is a Latin borrowing meaning “a gap, opening.” As a linguistic term, hiatus refers to a kind of phonetic opening which occur when two vowel are directly adjacent across a syllable boundary, with no consonant in between. Words like reality, native, embryo, which contain vowel in hiatus, are fairly rare in English.

  • Exception

V–drop is not an exceptionless change. The application of the rule before <h-> is inconsistent. The V-drop rule covers only the unstressed vowels in disyllabic morpheme.

  1. Syllable syncopation

Syllables are the smallest free-standing pronounceable units. When you say a word as slowly as possible, or when you yell it, you can count the syllables in it. Usually, there is a vowel at the nucleus of every syllable.

Syncopation is defined as “contraction of a word by omission of one or more syllables or letters in the middle” (OED). Like V-drop, syllable syncopation requires that the morpheme (or stem) in which the omission occurs be at least disyllabic.

  1. P- Epenthesis

P-Epenthesis resembles the other allomorphs rules in that it is phonetically motivated and can therefore also be observed in the spoken language. The effect of the change is to ease the transition between the voiced bilabial [m] and the voiceless stop [t]

  • Preservation of <-er> and <-or>

Syllable syncopation affects only unstressed syllable. Syncopation is blocked if the derivation of a new word involves shifting the stress onto the syllable containing [-r-].

3. Expansion rules: vowel or consonant epenthesis

A third group of rules in which recognizable phonetic factors cause predictable allomorphic variations are the expansion or epenthesis rules. Epenthesis (epi + en “in” + thesis “placing”) is the technical term for inserting a sound between two other sounds.

  1. U-Epenthesis

U-Epenthesis affects clusters made up of a velar stop ([g],[k]), or a bilabial stop ([b],[p]), plus the sonorant[l] where it is syllable.

{-gl-, -kl-, -bl-, -pl- } + V

↓     ↓      ↓     ↓

{-gul- kul  bul   pul }



Single + ar                   → singular

Particle + ar                 → particular

Table + ate                  → tabulate

Couple + a                   → copula




Menu adalah daftar makanan atau hidangan yang tersedia atau disajikan. Pada dasarnya hidangan yang tersaji berdasarkan menu skeleton (kerangka menu) yang susunannya sebagai berikut:

  1. Appetizer/starter sebagai hidangan pembuka selera makan. Sesuai fungsinya jenis makanan ini jumlahnya sedikit dengan rasa asam, asin atau pedas.
  2. Soup yang masih termasuk dalam kategori makanan pembuka.
  3. Main course yaitu makanan atau hidangan utama.
  4. Dessert sebagai hidangan penutup.

Jenis Menu:

  1. Tidak Resmi (Informal)
    Ciri-ciri tidak resmi: cepat, praktis, aturan sederhana.
  2. Resmi (Formal)
    Ciri-ciri resmi: santai, khusus, mewah, ada aturan tertentu.
    istilah yg dituliskan dalam undangan formal:
    – R.S.V.P (Responde Si’l Vous Plait) =  Konfirmasi kedatangan
    – Please Replay As Soon As Possible = Menunggu jawaban segera
    Kalau berhalangan harap memberi tahu
  3. Cocktail Party
    – Biasanya sebentar (maks. 1 jam), tujuannya untuk saling berkenalan dan menunggu tamu VIP
    – Hidangannya berupa minuman dan snack

Klasifikasi Menu:

  1. Menu Breakfast
  • Continental Breakfast

ü  Fruit Juice or Fresh Fruit

ü  Toast, Bread, Croissant Danish With Butter & Jam

ü  Coffee/Tea

  • American Breakfast

ü  Fruit Juice or Fresh Fruit

ü  Egg any style with bacon / ham

ü  Toastm Bread, Croissantm Danish With Butter & Jam

ü  Coffee/Tea

  • Indonesian Breakfast

ü  Fruit Juice or Fresh Fruit

ü  Nasi goreng, Bakmi goreng, Bubur ayam

ü  Coffee/Tea

2. Menu Lunch / Dinner

Menu lunch/dinner terdiri dalam urutan:
a) Appeteizer (pembuka)
b) Soup
c) Main course (makanan utama)
d) Dessert
e) Demmittase (coffee/tea)

Sifat Menu:

  1. Menu Table D’hote

Menu Table d’hote merupakan set menu atau urutan menu yang sudah dirangkaikan. Table d’hote adalah suatu susunan hidangan lengkap (complete meal) dengan suatu harga yang pasti. Jumlah hidangan biasanya terbatas dan terdiri dari beberapa kelompok hidangan misalnya 3, 4, 5, kelompok dan seterusnya. Untuk tetap menjaga kepuasan tamu, maka hotel biasanya mencantumkan beberapa makanan untuk masing-masing kelompok.

Tamu dapat memilih satu makanan diantara kelompok tersebut.
Misalnya pada kelompok pembuka (appetizer) tercantum 3 makanan. Pada kelompok soup tercantum 3 jenis soup demikian juga pada kelompok lain.
Dengan demikian tamu mempunyai pilihan yang lebih banyak tetapi tetap terbatas pada menu yang tercantum.

Sifat dan ciri-ciri menu Table d’hote:

  • Jumlah dan macam hidangannya mulai dari appetizer sampai dessert.
  • Biasanya hanya ada satu pilihan untuk masing-masing hidangan.
  • Mempunyai satu harga yaitu harga total untuk seluruh hidangan.
  • Hidangan sudah (selesai) dimasak sebelumnya. Misalnya rujak sebagai appetizer, soupnya Soto Madura, main course terdiri dari semur daging, nasih putih, urap sayur, kerupuk udang dan sambal serta kolak pisang sebagai penutup.

Contoh menu Table d’hote dengan pilihan:




  1. Menu A’la Carte

A‘la carte, berasal dari Bahasa Perancis, merupakan istilah yang biasa dipakai di restauran untuk merujuk pada menu yang dapat kita pilih dan pesan terpisah yang mempunyai harganya masing-masing, jadi bukan complete meal dengan satu harga.

Menu Ala Carte adalah menu yang dipilih sendiri oleh pemesannya sesuai selera. Karakter utama penyajian ala carte adalah price per dish atau terdapat harga dari setiap satu menu yang di pesan.

Sifat dan ciri-ciri menu a’la carte:

  • Jumlah dan macam hidangannya tidak terbatas
  • Terdapat banyak pilihan untuk masing-masing hidangan
  • Masing-masing hidangan memiliki harga tersendiri.
  • Hidangan disiapkan/dimasak berdasarkan pesanan tamu.

Makanan-makanan yang dicantumkan pada menu A’la Carte biasanya dikelompokkan menjadi:

Contoh menu A’la carte:

Fresh avocado served with shrimp cocktail

Fresh tomato, or cucumber, or lettuce or a mixture of fresh vegetables, served with sour cream of French Dressing.

Home made ham, ox-tongue, smoked beef, sausages, Roast beef, served with potato salad and ramoulade sauce.

Roast chicken garnished with asparagus tips with mixed/tossed salad and remoulade sauce

Cream of chicken or tomato soup
French onion soup
Consomme aux Profiteroles

Fillet of kakap meuniere
Served with Boiled Potatoes and Mixed Salad

With spaghetti, tomato sauce and fresh salad

Served with grilled tomato and bacon
Accompanied with French Fried Potatoes and mixed salad.

Shrimp = udang
Cucumber = mentimun
Cocktail = minuman beralkohol
Lettuce = selada
Sour = cream susu asam
Consomme = kaldu
Fillet = potongan tipis daging
Bacon = daging babi yang diasinkan dan dikukus









107. 043





1431 H / 2011 M


Kepemimpinan merupakan suatu proses dimana pemimpin dan pengikutnya berinteraksi dengan baik untuk mencapai tujuan bersama. Seorang pemimpin yang baik dan berkompeten di bidangnya sangat dibutuhkan dalam sebuah kelompok atau organisasi, baik itu dalam skala kecil maupun besar. Dalam dunia pariwisata sangatlah penting memiliki seorang pemimpin yang tahu dan mengerti tentang pariwisata dan segala aspek yang terkait. Pariwisata merupakan sektor yang sangat berkembang pada saat sekarang ini, dimana banyak orang yang memanfaatkan waktu luangnya untuk berwisata. Negara memperoleh banyak pendapatan dari sektor pariwisata. Untuk itu, demi kemajuan dunia pariwisata diperlukanlah seorang pemimpin yang tepat untuk membimbing dan memberi arahan ke arah yang lebih baik.

Proses kepemimpinan yang tepat sangat menentukan kesuksesan dari sebuah industri pariwisata. Dalam pelaksanaan proyek pariwisata harus ada sebuah  perencanaan. Perencanaan yang baik sangat penting sekali, dimana pariwisata merupakan sektor yang memerlukan banyak biaya dalam setiap pengadaan objek wisata dan kegiatan yang akan menarik banyak pengunjung. Dengan banyaknya pengunjung yang datang boleh dikatakan bahwa sebuah perencanaan berjalan dengan baik. Seorang pemimpin hendaknya mampu membuat perencanaan yang baik dan memusyawarahkannya dengan anggotanya.

Proses kepemimpinan yang baik hendaknya dimulai dengan mencari atau menyeleksi seseorang yang tepat untuk dijadikan pemimpin, karena seorang pemimpinan harus dapat memimpin dan mensejahterakan anggotanya dengan baik, serta mampu memberikan ide-ide brilian untuk kemajuan proyek yang dipimpinnnya. Namun pada saat sekarang ini banyak orang yang mengganggap remeh mengenai figur seorang pemimpin. Bahkan sekarang muncul istilah pemimpin simbolik dimana seseorang yang menjadi pemimpin hanya sebagai simbol saja daripada tidak memiliki pemimpin sama sekali. Dalam industri pariwisata hal semacam ini hendaknya dihindari. Jika ingin memajukan industri pariwisata hendaklah ditunjuk seorang pemimpin yang dapat membuat kebijakan dan memberi arahan yang lebih baik.

Secara umum proses kepemimpinan berawal dari sekelompok orang yang berkumpul dimana salah seorang diantaranya mengajak yang lain untuk membuat sebuah perencanaan. Kemudian untuk mensukseskan rencana tersebut mereka mulai mencari bantuan dengan mengadakan kunjungan ke berbagai tempat yang dianggap dapat mendukung perencanaan mereka. Setelah memperoleh banyak bantuan terbentulah sebuah organisasi yang memerlukan seorang pemimpin yang dapat mengarahkan anggotanya demi untuk mencapai tujuan bersama sesuai dengan perencanaan awal. Dalam hal ini penggagas awal bisa saja menyerahkan tampuk kepemimpinan kepada orang yang dianggap mampu. Demikianlah proses kepemimpinan itu terjadi, dan untuk memilih orang yang tepat sebagai pemimpin diperlukan penyeleksian yang jujur dan terbuka.

Dunia pariwisata sebagai sektor yang sangat berkembang saat ini hendaknya  memiliki seorang pemimpin yang tepat agar sektor tersebut memberikan banyak pendapatan yang dapat mensejahterakan masyarakat.





Textbook Identity:

The title                       : Get Along With English (for Vocational Grade X Novice Level)

The writer                    : Entin Sutinah, dkk

Year of publication     : 2010

Publisher                     : Erlangga

A.    Report

  1. Model of language use

Model of language use in this textbook is good because the language is authentic, it can be seen from the text and dialogue that presented in this textbook.

2. Experience of language use

Experience of language use is good; it can be seen on the kind of language use that the writer presented in this textbook.

3. Stimulation for language use

Stimulation for language use in this textbook is average. The textbook stimulate the student to learn, but the stimulation given by this textbook is not too challenging. It can be seen from the too many activity presented in this textbook

4. Aims of material

The textbook is good in the aims of material. The aims of material are to motivate student in learning, to solve the students’ problem in practicing their English skills. These are can be seen from the content of materials in this textbook.

5. Content of material

The content of material presented in this textbook is quietly good.  The content of materials includes the four language skills.

6. Learning experience

Learning experience is good. Students not only get learning experience in the class, but also outside the class.

7. Appropriateness to the learner’s need and interest

Appropriateness to the learner’s need and interest is average. The textbook is appropriate to the learner’s need, but it is not too appropriate to the learner’s interest.

B.     Analysis

  1. Model of Language Use

The model of language use in this book is authentic, that is like real-life English. For example, the textbook contain the way native speaker used language or say something. Then, the progression of grammar points and vocabulary items is appropriate. The grammar points are presented with brief and easy examples and explanations. The model of language can be seen from the text and dialogue presented in this textbook.

Model of language usually use in many textbook is tend to be not communicative. The textbook just visualize as act like a teacher and do not communicative with the students. But in the textbook that we analyze, model of language use can make the students understand about what the students read (materials). There is no distance between the students with textbook. Textbook can be a partner, make the students have fun and enjoy when they are study.

2. Experience of Language Use

Experience of language use in this textbook can be seen in the kind of language that the writer presented. In textbook, beside present the verbal language, also present general sign language. The textbook create experience for student. It contain activities like understanding, reading, doing conversation, translating, arranging and soon.

The textbook then, present formal and non formal language. Uniquely, the textbook shares knowledge to the student about the way greeting in other country like Australia. So, the students have wide knowledge about using English in many time, place, or situations.

3. Stimulation for Language Use

Actually, the language use in this textbook is varieties, it concludes formal and informal language, verbal and non verbal language, and all of them give the students stimulation. But for more stimulation to the students, the textbook must have variation by using puzzle, games such as ular tangga, playing card, and so on. If the language use has variation, the students have more stimulation to solve the challenging problem. So, this way can the students enjoy in studying materials.

4. Aims of Material

Aims of material in this textbook are good. The materials are very interesting that equipped with pictures in the materials. And then, the materials is little challenging and stimulate the students until the students have more motivation to learn the materials in textbook. Beside the aims of material as motivation to learn, the material in textbook deeply and useful to solve assignment. The materials in this textbook also have roles as tool of evaluation about the ability that have by the students. In other word, aims of material can give assessment until the students can measure them self.5. Content of Material

The content of material in this textbook is complete, that is consist of four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing), presented in application level, and meaningful by using dialogue, and picture. The content includes many topics that related to the student’s activities in daily life. For example, in chapter 1 the material is about greetings that is the important aspect in life and in the next chapter the material is also talk about what the students’ need. The content of material is varieties. The content is not only about the daily activities but also about expressions and signs. Then, the materials are not culturally biased and they do not portray any negative stereotypes.

But, beside that, when we look at the topic of each material, it is only related to the social aspect of life; there is no connection to the political view or historical aspect. As Greene and petty said that the good textbook are contain material that related to the other subject. Then, the content of material is not too challenging because we have seen that the content of material in every chapter is in the same pattern, there are no challenging activity like puzzle or game.

5. Learning Experiences

The textbook give more learning experience for student. Selecting and organizing materials is important in create more learning experience. The material in this textbook has been selected and organized to create learning experiences. This textbook does not only give knowledge to the student, but it also encourage student to be able to practice their English skill.

The learning experiences are not only getting from the textbook. The textbook is also give suggestion or task to the students to surf the site. The textbook give student more learning experiences because the student can add their knowledge from the internet. In order to improve the students’ knowledge, this textbook gives the website that can be search by student in outside the class.

6. Appropriateness to the learner’s needs and interests

The student’s needs are the knowledge about language and skill to use language correctly. The textbook is appropriate to the student’s need because it give knowledge about language such as grammar and vocabulary and knowledge about how to use it. Then, the textbook presents many activities that should be done by students so that they can to use language correctly. For example, one of the activity presented in this textbook is conversation or dialogue, when the students practice it, it can be skill for them in speaking, and the teacher guide them and correct their pronunciation. This textbook then, also give the way how to use language like native speaker.

The textbook is not too appropriate to the student interest. It is contain too many activities that can make student bored in learning. So, the anticipation is the teacher must have method and strategy to make their students interesting. But in the other hand, this textbook contain instruction which followed by illustration picture that may make student interest.

C.    Strengths

  1. Model of language use is authentic.
  2. The content of material is complete; it is consist of the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
  3. Textbook give illustration or picture to make student interest
  4. Textbook give additional knowledge about outside the world, like  share knowledge and surf the site
  5. Explanation about grammar is simple and understandable
  6. D.    Weaknesses
    1. The weakness of this textbook is it presents too many activities that can make student boring.
    2. The textbook is not too challenging, because there is no puzzle or game that can stimulate students in learning.
    3. The topic of each material is only related to the social aspect of life; there is no connection to the political view or historical aspect.
    4. E.     Recommendation

We recommend that this textbook is proper to use for vocational student in the grade X. But the textbook should have little revision by adding the more challenging material.